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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
ЂEvaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova
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Gleditsia triacanthos

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Gleditsia triacanthos

Species



Gleditsia triacanthos

Taxonomy



Kingdom: Plantae

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Genus: Gleditsia

Species: G. triacanthos


Plant description


Honey locusts can reach a
of 20Ц30 m (66Ц100 ft), with fast growth, and are relatively short-lived;
about 120 years, some living up to 150. They are also prone to losing large
branches in windstorms. The leaves are pinnately compound on older trees but
bipinnately compound on vigorous young trees. The leaflets are 1.5Ц2.5 cm
(smaller on bipinnate leaves) and bright green. They turn yellow in the fall
(autumn). Leafs out relatively late in spring, but generally slightly earlier
than the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The strongly scented
cream-colored flowers appear in late spring, in clusters emerging from the
base of the leaf axils.

The fruit of the Honey locust is a flat legume (pod) that matures between
September and October. The pods are generally between 15Ц20 cm. The pulp on
the insides of the pods is edible, unlike the Black locust, which is toxic.
The seeds are dispersed by grazing herbivores such as cattle and horses,
which eat the pod pulp and excrete the seeds in droppings; the animal's
digestive system assists in breaking down the hard seed coat, making
germination easier.

Honey locusts commonly have thorns 3Ц10 cm long growing out of the
branches; these may be single, or branched into several points, and commonly
form dense clusters. The thorns are fairly soft and green when young, harden
and turn red as they age, then fade to ash grey and turn brittle when mature.
These thorns are thought to have evolved to protect the trees from browsing
Pleistocene megafauna which may also have been involved in seed dispersal.
Thornless forms (G. t. inermis) are occasionally found growing wild.


Diffusion area



It is found mainly in southern
regions - the European part of Russia, Caucasus and Central Asia.


Ecology


Cultivated
on the fields and hills, especially I the steppe regions, in forestry
plantations, hedges and as a street tree in parks and gardens.


Therapeutic actions



Triakantin alkaloid diminish the
smooth muscle spasms, dilates blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.
Anaesthetic; Antiseptic; Cancer; Stomachic.

The pods have been made into a tea for the treatment of indigestion,
measles, catarrh etc. The juice of the pods is antiseptic. The pods have been
seen as a good antidote for children's complaints. The alcoholic extract of
the fruits of the honey locust, after elimination of tannin, considerably
retarded the growth, up to 63% of Ehrlich mouse carcinoma. However, the
cytotoxicity of the extract was quite high and the animals, besides losing
weight, showed dystrophic changes in their liver and spleen. The alcoholic
extract of the fruit exerted moderate oncostatic activity against sarcoma 180
and Ehrlich carcinoma at the total dose 350 mg/kg/body weight/mouse. Weight
loss was considerable. An infusion of the bark has been drunk and used as a
wash in the treatment of dyspepsia. It has also been used in the treatment of
whooping cough, measles, smallpox etc. The twigs and the leaves contain the
alkaloids gleditschine and stenocarpine. Stenocarpine has been used as a
local anaesthetic whilst gleditschine causes stupor and loss of reflex
activity. Current research is examining the leaves as a potential source of
anticancer compounds.

Biologically active substances



It contains Triakantin alkaloid,
the fruit and leaves have - ascorbic acid, the pods - glycosides, flavonoids
substances, saponins. In pods the antraglycosids have the laxativ effect,
vitamin K.

Indigenous medicinal plants in databases


Coada soricelului Ц Achillea
millefolium L.

Corn Ц Cornus mas L.

Cosaci Ц Astragalus dasyanthus

Pall.

Cretusca Ц Filipendula ulmaria L

Crusin Ц Frangula alnus Mill.

Cucurbetica Ц Aristolochia

clematidis L.


Centers, institutes, research labs of medicinal plants



http://www.plantarium.ru/page/search.html

http://www.agroatlas.ru/ru/content/weeds/Persicaria_lapathifolia/map/

http://www.lunevan.narod.ru/persicaria_lapathifolia.html

http://www.binoz.uj.edu.pl:8080/chromosomes/pages/main.jsf


References



1. Baertsche, S.R., M.T.
Yokoyama, and J.W. Hanover. 1986. Short rotation, hardwood tree biomass as
potential ruminant feed chemical composition, nylon bag ruminal degradation
and ensilement of selected species. J. Anim. Sci. 63:2028 2043.

2. Blair, R.M. 1990. Gleditsia triacanthos L. Honeylocust. In: R.M. Burns
and B.H. Honkala, Tech. Coordinators. Silvics of North American Trees, vol. 2
Hardwoods. USDA Handbook 654. pp. 358-364.

3. Dupraz, C. and C. Baldy. 1993. Temperate agroforestry re-search at INRA,
Montpellier, France. In R.C. Schultz and J.P. Colletti, eds. Opportunities
for Agroforestry in the Temperate Zone Worldwide: Proceedings of the Third
North American Agroforestry Conference. August 15-18, 1993. Ames, Iowa U.S.A.
pp. 445-449.

4. Gold, M.A. and J.W. Hanover. 1993. Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos
L.): Multipurpose Tree for the temperate zone. International Tree Crops
Journal 7(4):189-207.

5. Harlow, W.M., E.S. Harrar, J.W. Hardin and F.M. White. 1996. Textbook of
Dendrology. Eighth Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York. 534 p.

6. Wilson, A.A. 1993. Silvopastoral agroforestry using honeylo-cust
(Gleditsia triacanthos L.). In R.C. Schultz and J.P. Colletti, eds.
Opportunities for Agroforestry in the Tem-perate Zone Worldwide: Proceedings
of the Third North American Agroforestry Conference. August 15-18,1993. Ames,
Iowa U.S.A. pp. 265-269.

Genetic characteristics



2n=28 chromosomes.

Gathering place (figure should be increased)



Gleditsia triacanthos
DLE новинки

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