Med Plant Data Base

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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
Evaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova

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Trifolium pratense

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Trifolium pratense

Species


Trifolium pratense


Taxonomy


Kingdom:Plantae

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Genus: Trifolium

Species: T. pratense


Plant description


It is widely grown as a fodder
crop, valued for its nitrogen fixation, which increases soil fertility. For
these reasons it is used as a green manure crop. Several cultivar groups have
been selected for agricultural use, mostly derived from var. sativum. It has
become naturalised in many temperate areas, including the Americas and
Australasia as an escape from cultivation.

Diffusion area


There are seven varieties:

Trifolium pratense pratense - widespread

Trifolium pratense americanum - southeastern Europe (despite the
name)

Trifolium pratense frigidum - mountains of central and southern Europe
(Pyrenees, Alps, Balkans)

Trifolium pratense maritimum - southern Baltic Sea coast.

Trifolium pratense parviflorum - Europe.

Trifolium pratense sativum - Mediterranean region, robust-growing, with
hairless or nearly hairless foliage

Trifolium pratense villosum - Alps, densely hairy foliage.


Ecology


This plant grows on the grassy
places, pastures, hay fields, low-density forests. Common in the entire
country.

Therapeutic actions



The isoflavones (like irilone
and pratensein) from red clover have been used to treat the symptoms of
menopause. It has also been reported that red clover has been used for a
variety of medicinal purposes, such as bronchitis, burns, cancers, ulcers,
sedation, asthma, and syphilis.

It is an ingredient in eight-herb essiac tea.



Warnings and contraindications

Due to its activity on estrogen receptors, it is contraindicated in people
with a history of breast cancer, endometriosis, ovarian cancer, uterine
cancer, uterine fibroids, or other estrogen-sensitive conditions.

Due to its coumarin derivatives, it should be used in caution in
individuals with coagulation disorders or currently undergoing
anticoagulation therapy.

It is metabolized by CYP3A4 and therefore caution should be used when
taking it with other drugs using this metabolism pathway.

Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Red
clover (RC) is a herbaceous perennial plant that inhabits temperate and
subtropical areas throughout the world. Native Americans traditionally valued
RC for treatment of external skin problems and lung, nervous, and
reproductive system ailments. Herbalists have employed it as a blood cleanser,
expectorant, alterative, and sedative. With the recognition of its high
content of mildly estrogenic isoflavones, the plant has gained popularity as
a treatment for menopausal symptoms. Clinical evidence is presently lacking
to support the efficacy of semipurified RC isoflavone extracts for
alleviation of vasomotor and prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia
(BPH) symptoms. Limited evidence suggests possible efficacy in prevention of
osteoporosis and improvement of arterial compliance, a risk factor for
atherosclerosis. Current RC isoflavone products do not contain a protein
fraction, which precludes analogous comparison with isoflavone studies
utilizing dietary soy [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] or soy protein isolates (SPIs)
for various clinical outcomes. RC isoflavone extract preparations may also
differ from soy isoflavone extracts in content of minor chemicals, many of
which have not yet been identified, quantified, or tested for biological
activity. The need for long-term studies of RC isoflavone supplements is
great, as placebo effects, especially for menopausal symptoms, may persist
several weeks. Also, thyroid disease and cancer patients may face a
potential, yet undefined, risk from long-term exposure to isoflavones and
other compounds in RC.

USES: Red clover has been used for relieving coughing, skin problems, and
for preventing symptoms caused by menopause/"change of life" (e.g.,
hot flashes, trouble sleeping). Some herbal/diet supplement products have
been found to contain possibly harmful impurities/additives. Check with your
pharmacist for more details regarding the particular brand you use. The FDA
has not reviewed this product for safety or effectiveness. Consult your
doctor or pharmacist for more details.

HOW TO USE: Take this product by mouth as directed. Follow all directions
on the product package. If you are uncertain about any of the information,
consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this product under the supervision of
your doctor. Your condition may require further medical examination or
prescription medication. If your condition persists or worsens, or if you
think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical
attention.

SIDE EFFECTS: Stomach upset or nausea may occur. If any of these effects
persist or worsen, contact your doctor promptly. Tell your doctor immediately
if you have any of these very unlikely but serious side effects: breast pain,
severe headache, weakness, leg pain, chest pain. If you notice other effects
not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

PRECAUTIONS: If you have any of the following health problems, consult your
doctor before using this product: hormone-related tumors (e.g., breast
cancer, uterine cancer), stroke, liver disease, blood clots, migraine
headache, heart problems, kidney problems, seizures. Liquid preparations of
this product may contain sugar and/or alcohol. Caution is advised if you have
diabetes, alcohol dependence or liver disease. Ask your doctor or pharmacist
about the safe use of this product. This product should not be used in
infants or children. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details. Red
clover should not be used during pregnancy. If you become pregnant or think
you may be pregnant, inform your doctor immediately. It is not known whether
this product passes into breast milk. Because of the potential risk to the
infant, breast-feeding while using this product is not recommended. Consult
your doctor before breast-feeding.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Before using this product, tell your doctor or
pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription medications you may use,
especially of: estrogen, testosterone, progesterone (e.g., birth control
pills, hormone replacement), blood thinners (e.g., warfarin), corticosteroids
(e.g., prednisone), antibiotics.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control
center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US national
poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canadian residents should call their local
poison control center directly.

NOTES: Keep all regular medical or laboratory appointments.

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is
near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual
dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Refer to storage information printed on the package. If you have
any questions about storage, ask your pharmacist.

Thus, Is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%),
gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of
skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases
(16%).The study of herbal medications for common ailments in the elderly
reveals that Aesculus hippocastanum seed extracts alleviate the subjective
symptoms and reduce the objective signs of chronic venous insufficiency.
N The action of this drug is
most marked on the lower bowel, producing engorged hemorrhoidal veins, with
characteristic backache, with absence of actual constipation. Much pain but
little bleeding. Venous stasis general, varicose veins of purple color;
everything is slowed down, digestion, heart, bowels, etc. Torpor and
congestion of the liver and portal system, with constipation. The back aches
and gives out and unfits the patient for business. Flying pains all over.
Fullness in various parts; dry, swollen mucous membranes. Throat with
hemorrhoidal conditions



Trifolium pratense - Red clover contains isoflavones which can mimic the
effect of endogenous estrogen. The use of red clover to relieve menopausal
symptoms has been shown to be sometimes ineffective, but safe. Red clover contains
calcium and magnesium, which can relax the nervous system and improve
fertility.Traditionally, red clover has been administered to help restore
irregular menses and to balance the acid-alkaline level of the vagina to
promote conception. The isoflavones (like irilone and pratensein) from red
clover have been used to treat the symptoms of menopause.It has also been
reported that red clover has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes,
such as bronchitis, burns, cancers, ulcers, sedation, asthma, and syphilis.
Said to be used for: alterative, antiscrofulous, antispasmodic, aperient,
athlete's foot, bronchitis, burns, cancer, constipation, diuretic,
expectorant, gall-bladder, gout, liver, pertussis, rheumatism, sedative,
skin, sores, tonic, and ulcers. Flowers have been used as a sedative.
Russians recommend the herb for bronchial asthma. Chinese take the floral tea
as an expectorant. Kloss recommends that every family "stash" red
clover blossoms, gathered in summer, and dried on paper in shade. "Use
this tea in place of tea and coffee and you will have splendid results."
This is one of Kloss' diets that doesn't offend me. Pages have been devoted
to the anticancer activity of the floral tea, a remedy not yet tested by the
National Cancer Institute. Herbals recommend clover for bronchitis, leprosy,
pertussis, spasms, and syphilis. Jason Winters tea, containing red clover and
chaparral and some unidentified secret spice, sells at rather high prices as
a "cancer cure"

Biologically active substances



Red clover contains isoflavones
(estrogen-like compounds) which can mimic the effect of endogenous estrogen.
The use of red clover to relieve menopausal symptoms has been shown to be
sometimes ineffective, but safe. Red clover contains calcium and magnesium,
which can relax the nervous system and improve fertility. Traditionally, red
clover has been administered to help restore irregular menses and to balance
the acid-alkaline level of the vagina to promote conception.

Indigenous medicinal plants in databases


Brusture Arctium lappa L.

CastanAesculus hippocastanum L

Calin Viburnum opulus L.

Catina Hippophae rhamnoides L.

Cerentel Geum urbanum L.

Cicoare Cichorium intybus L.

Cimbrisor Thymus serpyllum L

Cimbru Thymus vulgaris L.

Ciubotica cucului Primula veris L.

Coacaz Ribes nigrum L.

Coada calului Equisetum

arvense L

Coada soricelului Achillea

millefolium L.

Centers, institutes, research labs of medicinal plants


http://www.unep-wcmc.org/species/plants/ghana/orgs.htm

http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm

http://www.plant-medicine.com http://www.pfaf.org/database/index.php

http://www.floridaplants.com/mdata.htm


References


Geller SE, Shulman LP, van
Breemen RB, et al. (2009). "Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red
clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled
trial". Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 16 (6): 115666. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181ace49b..

http://www.babyhopes.com/articles/natural-fertility-boosters.html

Red Clover Flowers Herbal Information

Purdue Horticulture: T. pratense

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15167307&dopt=Abstract .

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12472978&dopt=Abstract

https://online.epocrates.com/noFrame/showPage.do?method=altmeds&MonographId=3098&ActiveSectionId=2

Other National Symbols - Embassy of Denmark India

Flora Europaea: Trifolium pratense

Germplasm Resources Information Network: Trifolium pratense


Genetic characteristics


2n = 14

Gathering place (figure should be increased)



Trifolium pratense
DLE

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