Med Plant Data Base

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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
«Evaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova
»

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Melampyrum arvense

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Scrophulariales » Family: Scrophulariaceae

Melampyrum arvense

Species


Melampyrum arvense

Taxonomy


Kingdom: Plantae

Class: Magnoliopsida 
Order: Scrophulariales

Family: Scrophulariaceae

Genus: Melampyrum

Species: Melampyrum arvense

Plant description


This annual plant is
hemi-parasitic , this means that its roots attach to those of other plants
and it is able to obtain some nutrition from them. Plants grown in the
absence of a host fail to thrive. A wide range of plants can be used as
hosts, especially grasses. Field cow-wheat flowers from June to September,
the flowers being pollinated by bumblebees . The heavy seeds are poor
dispersers and can stay dormant in the soil for about two years . They have a
small oil body at one end, which is attractive to ants, who may carry the
seeds to their nests, eat the oil body then discard the seed . By doing so
they aid in the dispersal of the plant. The seeds are unusual in that they
germinate in the autumn, and the roots develop well before the shoots (which
develop in the spring); presumably this is so that the seedlings can attach
themselves to the roots of host plants quite quickly .

Diffusion area



This species was first recorded
in 1724 in Britain, and is probably native to the Isle of Wight, but may be
introduced elsewhere . Never a particularly common species, field cow-wheat
was known from the south and east of England. At present it occurs at just
four sites, in Wiltshire, Bedfordshire and on the Isle of Wight . It has been
deliberately planted at some sites . Elsewhere it occurs in Europe, extending
to the Ural Mountains in the east, southern Sweden in the north and the
northern Mediterranean in the south . In recent years it has declined in
France, Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands

Ecology


Grows up on fields, among crops,
in vineyards, bushes and on steppe slopes. It is frequent in the whole
country.

Therapeutic actions


Has the effect opioid,
anti-inflammatory and regenerative. It is used as the bathrooms in different
skin diseases. The root is used in hypertonic disease, vertigo, heart
disease, neuralgia, epilepsy, diseases of the stomach and gastrointestinal
tract, is administered External king's evil, prop, diathesis, mammary gland
diseases, rheumatism.


Biologically active substances



Antiprotozoal activity of
Melampyrum arvense and its metabolites.



Kirmizibekmez H, Atay I, Kaiser M, Brun R, Cartagena MM, Carballeira NM,
Yesilada E, Tasdemir D.



Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Yeditepe,
34755 Kayisdagi, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract



An activity guided isolation of the H(2)O subextract of the crude extract
of Melampyrum arvense L. afforded iridoid glucosides: aucubin (1),
melampyroside (2), mussaenoside (3), mussaenosidic acid (4), 8-epi-loganin
(5); flavonoids: apigenin (6), luteolin (7), luteolin
7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8); a lignan glycoside dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol
9-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9); and benzoic acid (10). beta-Sitosterol (11) and
a fatty acid mixture (12) were identified as the active principles of the
CHCl(3) subextract. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by
spectroscopic methods, while the composition of 12 was identified by GC-MS
after methylation. Luteolin (7) appeared as the most active compound against
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Leishmania donovani (IC(50) values 3.8 and
3.0 mug/mL). Luteolin 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8) displayed the best
antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (IC(50) value 2.9
mug/mL). This is the first detailed phytochemical study on Turkish M. arvense
and the first report of the antiprotozoal effect of Melampyrum species and
its constituents. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Indigenous medicinal plants in databases


Scumpie – Cotinus

coggygria Scop.

 Siminoc – Helichrysum

arenarium DC

 Soc – Sambucus nigra L.

 Sorbestrea – Sanguisorba

officinalis L.

 Sovarv – Origanum vulgare L.

 Sporici – Verbena officinalis L.

 Stejar – Quercus robur L.

 Sunatoare – Hypericum

perforatum L.

 Sulfina – Melilotus officinalis L.

 Stevie – Rumex confertus Willd.

 Talpa gastii – Leonurus cardiaca

 Tataneasa – Symphytum

officinale Lepech.

 Tei – Tilia cordata L.

 Traista ciobanului – Capsella bur

pastoris L.

 Trei frati patati – Viola tricolor L.

 Troscot – Polygonum aviculare L

 Turita – Agrimonia eupatoria L.

 Tintaura – Centaurium

Centers, institutes, research labs of medicinal plants



Department of Pharmacognosy,
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Yeditepe, Kayisdagi, Istanbul, Turkey.

References



. Wigginton, M. J. (1999)
British Red Data Books 1; Vascular Plants. 3rd Edition. JNCC,
Peterborough.

2. Grey-Wilson, C. (1994) Eyewitness Handbooks: Wild Flowers of Britain and
Northwest Europe. Dorling Kindersley, London

3. Press, B. & Gibbons, B. (1993) Photographic field guide: Wild
Flowers of Britain and Europe. New Holland (Publishers) Ltd., London.

4. Clapham, A. R., Tutin, T. G. & Warburg, E. F. (1981) Excursion Flora
of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

5. Ellis, M.B. and J.P., 1997. 
Microfungi on Land Plants: An Identification Handbook.

Genetic characteristics


2n= 18 chromosomes

Gathering place (figure should be increased)



Melampyrum arvense
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