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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
«Evaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova
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Viburnum opulus

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Viburnales » Family: Viburnaceae

Viburnum opulus

Species


Viburnum opulus

Taxonomy


Kingdom: Plantae

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Viburnales

Family: Viburnaceae

Genus: Viburnum

Species: opulus L.


Plant description


Small spreading tree or large
shrub to 3-4 m (to 6-7 m in the most favourable conditions).
Fast-growing plant. Annual growth even at lateral shoots reaches 30-40 cm.
Longevity of stems 9-25 (up to 50) years. Root system consists from long
taproot and numerous lateral roots. Bark grey-brownish with rimes; young
shoots with greyish-green bark. Buds ovoid sometimes with pointed top,
redish-green, with 2 scales. Opposite leafs wide-ovoid or round, 3-5-lobate,
large (7-10 cm length, to 8 cm , and sometimes bigger on the sprouting
shoots). Upper leaf surface is naked, dark-green, lower leaf surface is more
light because of grey densely and soft velvet pubescent. Leafstalk is short
(up to 2 cm)? with glandular tubercles in upper end. Flowers collected in
inflorescence - corymbs up to 8-10 cm diameter. Fertile, bell-shaped,
yellowish inner flowers (small about 5 mm) are surrounded by a ring of
showier, actinomorphic, white, sterile flowers (large 1-2.5 cm).
Cross-pollinated. Fruit is one-seed drupe, spherical, wide-ellipsoid, ovoid
or oval form up to 10-12 mm across, red or bright-red colour. Flesh
yellowish, juicy, sweet-sour-bitter. After slight frosts the bitter taste
considerable lowering and the fruits become esculent. Seed rotundo-flat, yellowishб
6-8 mm diameter, weight 10-12 g. Fruit-bearing annual. Flowering in IV-V,
fruit-bearing in VIII-IX. Species has high variety of forms. The most
well-known dwarf form V. opulus .Nanum. with spherical dense crown, and very
ornamental sterile form V. opulus .Roseum., which often named .snow ball. and
has dazzling white fruitless flowers. Sorts: Zholobovskaja, Zakat, Krasnaja
Grozd., Maria, Riabinushka, Eleksir.

Ecology.

Frostproof (not suffer from short slight frosts and strong frosts).
Hygrophilous. Enough demanded to soil fertility and especially
humidification. Prefer middle and hard loamy soils with pH 5.5-7 or lime
soils. Satisfactorily bear the salinization of soil. Shade-tolerant, but
fruit-bearing is better on open places. Resistant to the dust and gas air
pollution.

Economic value.

The plant has high food and medicine properties. Fruits contain 8-10%
sugars, 1.5-2.5% organic acids, 0.5-1% pectin, mineral substances - Na, K,
Ca, Mg, P, Fe (to 5 mg/100 g), carotin, vitamins C (17.4-81.5 and more than
100 mg/100 g), E, B9, P. Seeds contain up to 21% oil. Fruits used for
cooking: jam, thin jelly, jelly, sweetmeat, marmalade, juice, filling for
pies. Flowers, fruits and bark used in medicine. Wood used for turner works.
Plants used in field- and soil- protected belts. Valuable honey plant.
Sweet-fruit forms were selected in Research Institute of Gardening in Siberia
(sorts Ul.chen, Souzga, Zarniza, Tajezhnije Rubini, Vigorovskaja,
Shukshinskaja and other). Productivity of berries 3.95-8.23 (up to 16) ton
per hectare, 4-10 (up to 18) kg per bush, productivity of bark 250-600 g per
square meter. Grow in gardens and parks as ornamental plant. Shade-tolerant
and gas-resistant plant, that allows to use it in city green plantations. It
is necessary search the valuable forms in different zones of it.s area.


Diffusion area



Natural area covers territory of
Europe, Caucasus, Minor and Middle Asia, Siberia, Northern Africa.
Introduction in culture started in 1974 in Scientific-Research Institute of
Gardening of Siberia named by M.A. Lisavenko. Cultivated in forest and
steppe-forest zones of Europe part of the former USSR, on the Ural, in
Siberia, Far East, on the Caucasus, in Kazahstan and countries of Central
Asia. It can be found in green plantations on Solovetskije islands, in
Archangelsk, Kotlas, Solikamsk, Ussuriisk.

Ecology


Is found in forests, bushes from river floodplains. Grows in groups, more rarely
as a solitaire species.

Therapeutic actions



It is Diuretic, sedative, to
treat heart disease, edema, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, to treat the
gastrointestinal tract, and skin diseases. Antispasmodic; 
Astringent; 
Birthing aid;  Homeopathy;  Sedative.

Guelder rose is a powerful antispasmodic and is much used in the treatment
of asthma, cramps and other conditions such as colic or painful menstruation
It is also used as a sedative remedy for nervous conditions. The bark is
antispasmodic, astringent and sedative. The bark contains 'scopoletin', a
coumarin that has a sedative affect on the uterus. A tea is used internally
to relieve all types of spasms, including menstrual cramps, spasms after
childbirth and threatened miscarriage. It is also used in the treatment of
nervous complaints and debility. The bark is harvested in the autumn before
the leaves change colour, or in the spring before the leaf buds open. It is
dried for later use. The leaves and fruits are antiscorbutic, emetic and
laxative. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh bark. It is used in the
treatment of menstrual pain and spasms after childbirth.

Biologically active substances



Bark contain glycosides 3-6%,
tannin, isovaleric acid, resin, palmitic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic,formic
-acids, coffee. Fruits contain up to 32% sugar, tannins (3%), pectin,
essential oil, phytosterols, amino acids, provitamin A, vitamin P, K. Flowers
contain flavonoids, organic acids (including - ascorbic), essential oil. The
seeds - up to 21% fatty oil.

Indigenous medicinal plants in databases



Talpa gastii – Leonurus cardiaca

 Tataneasa – Symphytum

officinale Lepech.

 Tei – Tilia cordata L.

 Traista ciobanului – Capsella bur

pastoris L.

 Trei frati patati – Viola tricolor L.

 Troscot – Polygonum aviculare L

 Turita – Agrimonia eupatoria L.

 Tintaura – Centaurium

umbellatum Gilib.

 Urzica – Urtica dioica L.

 Verigar – Rhamnus cathartica L.

 Vetrice – Tanacetum vulgare L.

 Vasc – Viscum album L.

 Vinarita – Asperula odorata L.

 Volbura – Convolvulus

arvensis L.

 Zmeur – Rubus idaeus L.

Centers, institutes, research labs of medicinal plants



http://bsapm.moldnet.md/Baza_de_date/Roman/Meniubd.htm

http://bsapm.moldnet.md/Romana/index_h.html 
http://www.salvaeco.org/plante 
http://www2.viniti.ru 
http://belal.by/Basesr.html 
http://www.prometeus.nsc.ru/mba/db.ssi 
http://www.springerlink.com  http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=80593&tip=sid&clean=0


http://www2.viniti.ru/ 
http://www.medicultau.com/boli-si-tratamente/tratamente-cu-plante-medicinale/index.php

http://www.plante-medicinale.org/

http://www.pravaliata.ro/plante.htm


http://www.vladimed.ro/enciclopedia-plantelor-medicinale-spontane-romania-p-76.html


http://www.kodges.ru/7678-lekarstvennye-rastenija-rossii.-polnyjj-registr.html

http://all-ebooks.com/2009/10/07/68519-lekarstvennye-rastenija.html

http://www.booksgid.com/other/7339-.html

References


1. Аксенова Н.А., Фролова Л.А.
Деревья и кустарники для любительского садоводства и озеленения. М.: Изд-во
МГУ, 1989. 160 с.

2. Божкова С.П. Перспективы выращивания калины обыкновенной в условиях
лесостепи Украины // Состояние и перспективы развития редких садовых культур
в СССР. Мичуринск, 1989. стр. 16-19.

3. Ботанический сад академии наук Латвийской ССР 1956-1981 / ред. Р.
Циновскис. Рига: Зинатне, 1983. 325 с. Витковский В. Л. Плодовые растения
мира. СПб.; М.; Краснодар: Лань, 2003. 592 c.

4. Воробьева М.Г. Бульвары города Фрунзе // Интродукция деревьев,
кустарников и плодовых растений в Киргизию. Бишкек: Илим, 1991. C.
33-41.

5. Воробьева М.Г., Сыщикова А.Г. Древесные насаждения парка им. К.
Джакыпова // Интродукция и акклиматизация древесных, кустарниковых и плодовых
растений в Кыргызстане. Бишкек: Илим, 1991. C. 27-33.

6. Гаевская И.С., Эсенова Х.Э. Рекомендуемый ассортимент деревьев и
кустарников для озеленения городов и населенных пунктов Туркменистана // Декоративные
растения для озеленения Туркменистана / ред. И.С. Гаевская. Вып. 9. Ашхабад:
Ылым, 1986. C. 3-63.

7. Гришко М.М., Соколовський О.I. Ботанiчний сад Академii наук Украiнськоi
РСР i його колекциi. Киiв: видавництво Академii наук Украiнськоi РСР, 1973.
116 c.

8. Конспект дендрофлоры Калининградской области / ред. Р.Е. Циновскис, М.А.
Бицс, Д.А. Кнапе, Г.Г. Кученева. Рига: Зинатне, 1983. 162 c.

9. Пенкина И.Г. Феноритмы калин, выращиваемых в Ботаническом саду г. Фрунзе
// Интродукция деревьев, кустарников и плодовых растений в Киргизию. Бишкек:
Илим, 1991. C. 3-7.

Соколова Л.И. Красивоцветущие и декоративные деревья и кустарники для
озеленения Туркмении // Декоративные растения для озеленения Туркмении / ред.
Н.Т. Нечаева. Ашхабад: АН Туркменской ССР, 1962. C. 9-73.

10. Солодухин Е.Д. Калина. М.: Лесная промышленность, 1985. 77 c.


Genetic characteristics



2n=18 chromosomes.

Gathering place (figure should be increased)



Viburnum opulus

DLE новинки

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