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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
ЂEvaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova
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Galium verum

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium verum
Lady's Bedstraw or Yellow
Bedstraw) is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Rubiaceae, native to
Europe and Asia. It is a low scrambling plant, with the stems growing to
60-120 cm long, frequently rooting where they touch the ground. The leaves
are 1-3 cm long and 2 mm broad, shiny dark green, hairy underneath, borne in
whorls of 8-12. The flowers are 2-3 mm in diameter, yellow, and produced in
dense clusters.It is related to the plant Cleavers, or Sticky Willy (Gallium
Aparine).
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Galium mollugo

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium mollugo
This adventive perennial plant
is 1Ц2½' long and unbranched, except near the inflorescence. The lower
stem is often decumbent along the ground, while the upper stem and
inflorescence are more or less erect. In the absence of support from adjacent
vegetation, this plant has a tendency to sprawl. The central stem is
glabrous, 4-angled, and often furrowed; it becomes slightly swollen where the
whorls of leaves occur. Each whorl has 6-8 leaves; these whorls of leaves
become rather widely spaced as the central stem elongates. Each leaf is up to
1" long and ¼" across (or slightly larger). It is oblong or
oblanceolate, glabrous, and smooth along its margin; sometimes this margin is
slightly ciliate. There is a single prominent vein along its upper surface.
The foliage of this plant lacks any stiff or clinging hairs. The central stem
terminates in a panicle of cymes up to 1' long. This panicle is longer than
it is broad and contains a multitude of small white flowers. There is often a
pair of small leaves (or leafy bracts) at the base of each cyme along the
central flowering stalk. Each flower is about 1/6" across. It has a
white corolla with 4 lobes (rarely 3) and a pair of ovoid carpels at its base
that are green, hairless, and joined together. The throat of the corolla is
quite narrow, from which there protrudes a pair of styles. Each lobe of the
corolla becomes pointed at its tip. The blooming period occurs from late
spring to mid-summer, and lasts about 1 month. Some plants bloom later than
others. Each carpel contains a seed that is convex on one side and concave on
the other. The root system is rhizomatous and can produce numerous vegetative
offsets.
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Galium aparine

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium aparine
This native annual plant is
about 1-3' long and unbranched, except where the flowers occur. It has a weak
central stem with whorls of 6-8 leaves that are rather widely separated from
each other. Both the central stem and leaves have stiff hairs that point
downward; this enables the plant to cling to adjacent vegetation for support.
The central stem is 4-angled and furrowed. Short secondary stems often
develop from the upper half of the central stem; they terminate in small
cymes of flowers. The leaves are up to 3" long and ¼"
across. They are linear-oblong, smooth along the margins (except for stiff
hairs), and sessile. Each leaf has a single central vein along its length.
Above the upper whorls of leaves, single flowers and/or small cymes of 2-3
flowers are produced. Sometimes panicles of cymes are produced, although the
total number of flowers remains small. At the base of each cyme, there are
1-4 secondary leaves (or leafy bracts); they are smaller than the whorled
leaves of the central stem. Each flower is about 1/8" across. It
consists of 4 white petals with pointed tips, 4 stamens, 2 styles, and a pair
of green carpels that are joined together at the base of the flower. The
sepals are tiny and insignificant. The carpels are covered with stiff hooked
hairs and have a bur-like appearance; together, they are about ¼"
across when fully developed. The blooming period occurs from late spring to
mid-summer and lasts about 1-2 months. After the petals fall off, the carpels
eventually turn brown. Each carpel contains a single greyish brown seed that
is notched on one side. The root system is branching and shallow. This plant
spreads by reseeding itself.
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