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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
ЂEvaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova
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Trifolium pratense

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Trifolium pratense
It is widely grown as a fodder
crop, valued for its nitrogen fixation, which increases soil fertility. For
these reasons it is used as a green manure crop. Several cultivar groups have
been selected for agricultural use, mostly derived from var. sativum. It has
become naturalised in many temperate areas, including the Americas and
Australasia as an escape from cultivation.
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Trifolium fragiferum L.

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Trifolium fragiferum L.
Perennial herb. Stems prostrate
and stoloniferous, 5 to 50 cm long with erect petioles and floral stalks,
stems hairy or smooth. Leaves trifoliate, 2 to 20 cm long, congested or
loose, with long hairy or hairless stalks. Leaflet 0.5 to 3 cm long, 0.3 to 1.5
cm wide, obovate to elliptical, occasionally round, blunt, often indented at
the tip, finely toothed, hairless or hairy along the veins and margins.
Stipules reach 2 cm long, lance-shaped, dilated and white papery towards the
base and with a sharp pointed free portion. Inflorescences globular and
compact, 10-12 mm in diameter, with pink or purplish red florets and when
ripe, become reddish and resemble strawberry fruits. The blooms appear
earlier than those of white clover. There may be 35 to 60 florets per head.
Only one seed forms in a floret. As the seeds mature, the head takes on the
appearance of a balloon. The flowers are extremely attractive to bees for
both nectar and pollen. After pollination in summer by bumble bees and honey
bees, the pubescent fruiting calyces contain 1-2 seeds each. Seeds are
heart-shaped and colored light brown with dark brown flecks. Cross
fertilized. 2n = 16.
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Medicago lupulina

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Medicago lupulina
Annual with prostrate or
ascending stems up to 2½' long. These stems are light green or reddish
green and densely covered with white hairs (although older stems become less
hairy); they branch occasionally. The alternate compound leaves are trifoliate.
Young trifoliate leaves toward the tips of the stems have short hairy
petioles, while older trifoliate leaves have longer petioles. At the base of
each petiole, there is a pair of stipules that are lanceolate to ovate and
variable in size. The leaflets of the compound leaves are up to 2/3"
long and about half as much across; they are medium to dark green, obovate or
oval-ovate, hairy or nearly hairless, and slightly dentate along their
margins. Each middle leaflet has a short stalk, while the lateral leaflets
are sessile. The upper surface of each leaflet has fine lateral veins that
are light green and straight.
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Gleditsia triacanthos

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Gleditsia triacanthosHoney locusts can reach a
of 20Ц30 m (66Ц100 ft), with fast growth, and are relatively short-lived;
about 120 years, some living up to 150. They are also prone to losing large
branches in windstorms. The leaves are pinnately compound on older trees but
bipinnately compound on vigorous young trees. The leaflets are 1.5Ц2.5 cm
(smaller on bipinnate leaves) and bright green. They turn yellow in the fall
(autumn). Leafs out relatively late in spring, but generally slightly earlier
than the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The strongly scented
cream-colored flowers appear in late spring, in clusters emerging from the
base of the leaf axils.

The fruit of the Honey locust is a flat legume (pod) that matures between
September and October. The pods are generally between 15Ц20 cm. The pulp on
the insides of the pods is edible, unlike the Black locust, which is toxic.
The seeds are dispersed by grazing herbivores such as cattle and horses,
which eat the pod pulp and excrete the seeds in droppings; the animal's
digestive system assists in breaking down the hard seed coat, making
germination easier.

Honey locusts commonly have thorns 3Ц10 cm long growing out of the
branches; these may be single, or branched into several points, and commonly
form dense clusters. The thorns are fairly soft and green when young, harden
and turn red as they age, then fade to ash grey and turn brittle when mature.
These thorns are thought to have evolved to protect the trees from browsing
Pleistocene megafauna which may also have been involved in seed dispersal.
Thornless forms (G. t. inermis) are occasionally found growing wild.
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Genista tinctoria

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Genista tinctoria

The bright green smooth stems, 1
to 2 feet high, are much branched; the branches erect, rather stiff, smooth
or only lightly hairy and free from spines. The leaves are spear-shaped,
placed alternately on the stem, smooth, with uncut margins, 1/2 to 1 inch in
length, very smoothly stalked; the margins fringed with hairs. The shoots
terminate in spikes of brightyellow, pea-like flowers, opening in July. They
are 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, on foot-stalks shorter than the calyx. Like those
of the Broom, they 'explode' when visited by an insect. The 'claws' of the
four lower petals are straight at first, but in a high state of tension, so
that the moment they are touched, they curl downwards with a sudden action
and the flower bursts open. The flowers are followed by smooth pods, 1 to 1/4
inch long, much compressed laterally, brown when ripe, containing five to ten
seeds. A dwarf kind grows in tufts in meadows in the greater part of England
and is said to enrich poor soil.

Cows will sometimes eat the plant, and it communicates an unpleasant
bitterness to their milk and even to the cheese and butter made from it. All
parts of the plant, but especially the flowering tops, yield a good yellow
dye, and from the earliest times have been used by dyers for producing this
colour, especially for wool; combined with woad, an excellent green is
yielded, the colour being fixed with alum, cream of tartar and sulphate of
lime. In some parts of England, the plant used to be collected in large
quantities by the poor and sold to the dyers.

Tournefort (1708) describes the process of dyeing linen, woollen, cloth or
leather by the use of this plant, which he saw in the island of Samos. It is
still applied to the same purpose in some of the Grecian islands. The Romans
employed it for dyeing, and it is described by several of their writers. The
plant is called in French Genêt des Teinturiers and in German
Färberginster. Its English name in the fourteenth century was
Wede-wixin, or Woud-wix, which later became Woad Waxen. We find it also
called Green Weed and Dyer's Weed. It has diuretic, cathartic and emetic
properties and both flower tops and seeds have been used medicinally, though
it has never been an official drug. The powdered seeds operate as a mild
purgative, and a decoction of the plant has been used medicinally as a remedy
in dropsy and is stated to have proved effective in gout and rheumatism,
being taken in wineglassful doses three or four times a day.

The ashes form an alkaline salt, which has also been used as a remedy in
dropsy and other diseases. In the fourteenth century it was used, as well as
Broom, to make an ointment called Unguentum geneste, 'goud for alle could
goutes,' etc. The seed was also used in a plaster for broken limbs. A
decoction of the plant was regarded in the Ukraine as a remedy for
hydrophobia, but its virtues in this respect do not seem to rest on very good
evidence.

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Galega officinalis

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Galega officinalis
Perennial, Herbs, Taproot
present, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems less than 1 m tall,
Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or
young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules
conspicuous, Stipules green, triangulate to lanceolate or foliaceous,
Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Stipules cordate, lobed, or sagittate,
Leaves compound, Leaves odd pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets
opposite, Leaflets 5-9, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so,
Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Inflorescence terminal,
Bracts conspicuously present, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx
glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals
pinkish to rose, Petals blue, lavander to purple, or violet, Banner petal
ovoid or obovate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Keel tips
obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Stamens 9-10, Stamens monadelphous, united
below, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Style persistent in fruit, Fruit a
legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight,
Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit torulose or
moniliform, strongly constricted between seeds, Fruit beaked, Fruit 3-10
seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive,
brown, or black.
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Caragana fletux

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Caragana fletux
0,5-2 m shrub with yellowish or
greenish-gray bark, mostly bearing narrow longitudinal whitish stripes cork.
Young shoots finely downy, netolstye, leaf petioles long shoots quickly
harden and remain in the form of short, 3-11 mm in length, but rather thick
spines, leaves 5-20 mm long and 2-9 mm wide, green or greyish, paler below
with a thickened middle vein, continuing on the tip of leaflets in the barbed
tip. Pedicels solitary or paired, Unifloral 5-9 mm long, Calyx
campanulate-tubular, corolla 22-30 mm long, yellow or golden; flag with a
broad, ovate-rhombic limb, wings extended upward somewhat, keel blunt, bob
4-5 cm long, 4,5-6 mm wide.
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Astragalus glycyphyllus

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Astragalus glycyphyllus
Perennial, Herbs, Stems woody
below, or from woody crown or caudex, Nodules present, Stems erect or
ascending, Stems less than 1 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs
sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules
conspicuous, Stipules membranous or chartaceous, Stipules persistent,
Stipules connate to each other, forming a tuber or sheath, Leaves compound,
Leaves odd pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite,
Leaflets 5-9, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves hairy on one or both surfaces,
Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or
caducous, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx hairy, Petals separate,
Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals ochroleucous, cream colored,
Petals bicolored or with red, purple or yellow streaks or spots, Banner petal
narrow or oblanceolate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing tips
obtuse or rounded, Keel petals auriculate, spurred, or gibbous, Keel tips
obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Stamens 9-10, Stamens diadelphous, 9 united, 1
free, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Style persistent in fruit, Fruit a
legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit tardily or wea kly dehiscent, Fruit elongate,
straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit or valves persistent on stem,
Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit beaked, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit
11-many seeded, Seeds cordiform, mit-shaped, notched at one end, Seed surface
smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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