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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
ЂEvaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova
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Taraxacum officinale

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Taraxacum officinale
The species of Taraxacum are
tap-rooted biennial or perennial herbaceous plants, native to temperate areas
of the Old World.

The leaves are 5Ц25 cm long or longer, simple and basal, entire or lobed,
forming a rosette above the central taproot. The flower heads are yellow to
orange colored, and are open in the daytime but closed at night. The heads
are borne singly on a hollow stem (scape) that rises 1Ц10 cm or more above
the leaves and exudes a milky sap (latex) when broken. A rosette may produce
several flowering stems at a time. The flower heads are 2Ц5 cm in diameter
and consists entirely of ray florets. The flower heads mature into a
spherical "clocks" containing many single-seeded fruits called
achenes. Each achene is attached to a pappus of fine hairs, which enable
wind-aided dispersal over long distances.
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Inula helenium

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Inula heleniumIt is a rather rigid herb, the
stem of which attains a of from 3 to 5 feet; the leaves are large and
toothed, the lower ones stalked, the rest embracing the stem; the flowers are
yellow, 2 inches broad, and have many rays, each three-notched at the
extremity. The root is thick, branching and mucilaginous, and has a warm,
bitter taste and a camphoraceous odor.
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Helichrysum arenarium

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Helichrysum arenarium
Perennial, woody root, stem
10-30 cm, unbranched, greyish tomentoasă the foil, leaves linear to
oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to base; antodii globular 4-5 mm in
diameter, yellow-orange; leaflets involucrale, nested , loose, yellow like
lemon, yellow flowers, the marginal missing, flowering from July to
September, fruit 1mm long sided achene.
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Galinsoga parviflora

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Galinsoga parviflora
Plants 10-100 cm high, covered with scattered small and more dense in the upper part of appressed simple
hairs, with an admixture of glandular. Stem is straight, usually branched
from the base. Fibrous roots. Leaves opposite, ovate or oblong-ovate, pointed,
on petioles, on the edge with blunt teeth or wavy. Baskets by numerous thin,
not the same length legs, a loose poluzontikah to 3 mm in diameter. Leaflets
ovate involucre, on the edge of the membranous. Ray flowers about 3 mm long.
Achenes 1. 0-1. 5 mm in length, with fine hairs. Boundary - triangular,
internal - the four-pentahedral, with indistinct furrows, dark gray,
sometimes almost black. Pappus in marginal achenes of small setae break off,
in mid - white oblong-lanceolate ciliate films including 8-20, the breaking
away of falling from an annular ridge. Flowering in July-September. Maximum
productivity is up 300 thousand. seeds. Weight of 1000 seeds 0. 21 g. The
vegetation period is 30-45 days. Propagated by seeds, which are dispersed by
wind through CNStats owner gains. In svezhesozrevshih seed germination of
28-49%. The minimum temperature for germination is 6-8 ∞ C, optimum 16 - +30
∞ C. Variable temperature promote germination of seeds stale, but in a small
degree of influence on fresh. Fluctuation of dryness and humidity greatly
increases the germination rate as fresh and stale seeds. Germinate from a
depth of no more than 2-3 cm. Germination is greatly influenced by light.
Summer-autumn shoots did not survive the winter and die at a temperature of -
4.2∞ C.
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Centaurea cyanus

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Centaurea cyanus
One or biennial plant family
Compositae with a thin rod branched root. The stem is erect, branched, to 80
cm in . Lower leaves are trifoliate or peristolopastnye, rarely entire,
petiolate, dying at the time of flowering. The remaining leaves are sessile,
linear, smooth-. Flowers in solitary large flower diameter of about 3 cm long
leafless peduncles. Marginal flowers asexual, with blue funnel-shaped
deep-pyatinadre zannymi nimbuses up to 2 cm, median - are bisexual, the
stamens 5, anthers fused into a tube, pistil with two stigmas with violet
tubular quinquedentate nimbuses up to 1 cm. Fruits - hairy shiny gray or
yellowish gray, oblong-ovate achene length 2,5-4 mm, with multi-row tuft at
apex, crest, which is equal to the length of the achene, is composed of
uneven reddish or purple stiff bristly hairs, easily breaks off. Flowering
from May to August. Fruits in August.
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Calendula officinalis

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Calendula officinalis
The calendula is a long time
favorite among gardeners. Also called English marigold, this plant has been
grown since the Middle Ages and was known to Shakespeare. Calendula is an
annual flower that prefers cool growing weather but nevertheless are tender
and killed by frosts. Depending on variety and culture, the plants grow 12-30
in (30.5-76.2 cm) in and about as wide. The leaves are bright green
and typically about 4 in (10.2 cm) long. The lower leaves are oval with a
rounded tip (spatulate) and upper leaves are lance shaped with pointed tips.
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