Med Plant Data Base

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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
Evaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova

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Stellaria media

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Caryophyllales » Family: Caryophyllaceae

Stellaria mediaRoot
is thin, ramified. Stem is usually prostrate, 5-30 (40) cm long, round, one
row of hairs, often twisting, developing roots at the nodes. Cotyledons are
tender, light green, lanceolate, tapering into the petiole. Foliage leaves
are opposite in pairs, small, pointed-ovate, tip often dot-shaped black,
lower leaves petiolate, petioles with a comb of hair. Flowers are white,
small, star-like, pedunculate, in terminal and in forks. Boll is ovate or
oblong, longer than the calyx. Seeds are numerous, rounded or reniform,
squeezed, brown. Seed germination depth is 1-2 cm. Seeds per plant: 15,000
(10,000-20,000). Seeds maintain their ability to germinate in soil for 2-5
years. Propagates with rooted stems as well. Germination period is from early
spring until first autumn frosts. Yields 2-3 generations in a summer.
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Polygonum lapathifolium

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Polygonales » Family: Polygonaceae

Polygonum lapathifolium
Morphology and biology. The stem
is straight (30-60 cm, rarely up to 1 m), branched. Leaves are linear, rarely
oval or oblong (4-40 cm). The Inflorescence - up to 4 cm long and 1.5 cm
thick. Fruit - Nut as 2.5-3.5 x 1.0 x 2.0 mm. having a smooth shiny surface.
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Phlomis tuberosa

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Lamiales » Family: Lamiaceae

Phlomis tuberosaNamed for the small tubers that
grow from its roots, this selection is perhaps the most unusual of all. Fuzzy
leaf stems and large green leaves with toothed margins give the plant a
coarse texture that is softened by lilac blossoms with reddish calyxes and
deep crimson flower stems. Such distinctive character mixes especially well
with grasses and Lavenders.

Blooms JuneAugust.

Size: 4' high x 3' wide; hardy to zone 6.
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Melandrium album

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Caryophyllales » Family: Caryophyllaceae

Melandrium albumSoftly-haired weed with deep,
fleshy root, sometimes with root buds. Stem is erect, hairy, usually ramified
from the base up, 30-100 cm high. Cotyledons are ovate acuminate, gradually
tapering into the petiole. Foliage leaves are in opposite pairs, lower leaves
inverse ovate and petiolate, upper leaves lanceolate and sessile, haired at
the margin and on the veins. Flowers are unisexual, dioecious, in
paniculiform inflorescences, white, fragrant, loosely arranged. Calyx is
15-20 mm long, with 10-20 ribs, does not open until afternoon. Boll opens
with 10 teeth. Seeds are small, 1-1.5 mm long, dark-brown. Shoots emerge in
spring, shallow germination. Flowering period - June - August. The mass of
1000 seeds is 0.5-0.7 g. Seeds per plant : about 6000. Can propagate with
root layers as well.
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Lythrum salicaria

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Myrtales » Family: Lythraceae

Lythrum salicarialanceolate, 3-10 cm long and
5-15 mm broad, downy and sessile, and arranged opposite or in whorls of
three.

The flowers are reddish purple, 10-20 mm diameter, with six petals
(occasionally five) and 12 stamens, and are clustered tightly in the axils of
bracts or leaves; there are three different flower types, with the stamens
and style of different lengths, short, medium or long; each flower type can
only be pollinated by one of the other types, not the same type, thus
ensuring cross-pollination between different plants.

The fruit is a small 3-4 mm capsule containing numerous minute seeds.
Flowering lasts throughout the summer. When the seeds are mature, the leaves
often turn bright red through dehydration in early autumn; the red colour may
last for almost two weeks. The dead stalks from previous growing seasons are
brown.

L. salicaria is very variable in leaf shape and degree of hairiness, and a
number of subspecies and varieties have been described, but it is now
generally regarded as monotypic with none of these variants being considered
of botanical significance. The species Lythrum intermedium Ledeb. ex Colla is
also now considered synonymous.
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Inula helenium

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Inula heleniumIt is a rather rigid herb, the
stem of which attains a of from 3 to 5 feet; the leaves are large and
toothed, the lower ones stalked, the rest embracing the stem; the flowers are
yellow, 2 inches broad, and have many rays, each three-notched at the
extremity. The root is thick, branching and mucilaginous, and has a warm,
bitter taste and a camphoraceous odor.
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Hypericum perforatum

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Hypericales » Family: Hypericaceae

Hypericum perforatumHerbaceous perennial plant 30-70
(100) cm tall. Stem is erect, branchy in the upper part, with two
longitudinal ribs. Leaves are opposite, elliptical or oblong-ovate,
smooth-edged, sessile, with numerous, translucent, light and black glandules.
Flowers are numerous, golden yellow, assembled in a latipaniculate or
corymbose inflorescence. Petals are covered with glandules along the edges,
dentate on the top. Fruit is an oblong-ovoid boll. Seed are small, brown,
closely meshed. Blossoms from June until August. Entomophilous. 2n=32.

Ecology.

Xeromesophyte. Photophilous. Grows on dry and sunny sites. Grows throughout
the forest and forest-steppe zones. Rarely forms extensive thickets; more
often grows in narrow bands along clearings or in small clumps on dry,
motley-grass, steppe meadows, in glades and clearings, in thin pinewoods, in
dry coniferous/small-leaved mixed forests, in oak groves, in steppe birch
patches, in meadow steppes, in fallow lands, along field edges and along
roadsides. In mountainous areas, the species occurs on foothills and in the
lower and middle mountain zones on stony slopes, though it rarely ascends
into sub-alpine meadows (up to 2300 m above sea level).
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Gleditsia triacanthos

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Gleditsia triacanthosHoney locusts can reach a
of 2030 m (66100 ft), with fast growth, and are relatively short-lived;
about 120 years, some living up to 150. They are also prone to losing large
branches in windstorms. The leaves are pinnately compound on older trees but
bipinnately compound on vigorous young trees. The leaflets are 1.52.5 cm
(smaller on bipinnate leaves) and bright green. They turn yellow in the fall
(autumn). Leafs out relatively late in spring, but generally slightly earlier
than the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The strongly scented
cream-colored flowers appear in late spring, in clusters emerging from the
base of the leaf axils.

The fruit of the Honey locust is a flat legume (pod) that matures between
September and October. The pods are generally between 1520 cm. The pulp on
the insides of the pods is edible, unlike the Black locust, which is toxic.
The seeds are dispersed by grazing herbivores such as cattle and horses,
which eat the pod pulp and excrete the seeds in droppings; the animal's
digestive system assists in breaking down the hard seed coat, making
germination easier.

Honey locusts commonly have thorns 310 cm long growing out of the
branches; these may be single, or branched into several points, and commonly
form dense clusters. The thorns are fairly soft and green when young, harden
and turn red as they age, then fade to ash grey and turn brittle when mature.
These thorns are thought to have evolved to protect the trees from browsing
Pleistocene megafauna which may also have been involved in seed dispersal.
Thornless forms (G. t. inermis) are occasionally found growing wild.
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Genista tinctoria

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Genista tinctoria

The bright green smooth stems, 1
to 2 feet high, are much branched; the branches erect, rather stiff, smooth
or only lightly hairy and free from spines. The leaves are spear-shaped,
placed alternately on the stem, smooth, with uncut margins, 1/2 to 1 inch in
length, very smoothly stalked; the margins fringed with hairs. The shoots
terminate in spikes of brightyellow, pea-like flowers, opening in July. They
are 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, on foot-stalks shorter than the calyx. Like those
of the Broom, they 'explode' when visited by an insect. The 'claws' of the
four lower petals are straight at first, but in a high state of tension, so
that the moment they are touched, they curl downwards with a sudden action
and the flower bursts open. The flowers are followed by smooth pods, 1 to 1/4
inch long, much compressed laterally, brown when ripe, containing five to ten
seeds. A dwarf kind grows in tufts in meadows in the greater part of England
and is said to enrich poor soil.

Cows will sometimes eat the plant, and it communicates an unpleasant
bitterness to their milk and even to the cheese and butter made from it. All
parts of the plant, but especially the flowering tops, yield a good yellow
dye, and from the earliest times have been used by dyers for producing this
colour, especially for wool; combined with woad, an excellent green is
yielded, the colour being fixed with alum, cream of tartar and sulphate of
lime. In some parts of England, the plant used to be collected in large
quantities by the poor and sold to the dyers.

Tournefort (1708) describes the process of dyeing linen, woollen, cloth or
leather by the use of this plant, which he saw in the island of Samos. It is
still applied to the same purpose in some of the Grecian islands. The Romans
employed it for dyeing, and it is described by several of their writers. The
plant is called in French Genêt des Teinturiers and in German
Färberginster. Its English name in the fourteenth century was
Wede-wixin, or Woud-wix, which later became Woad Waxen. We find it also
called Green Weed and Dyer's Weed. It has diuretic, cathartic and emetic
properties and both flower tops and seeds have been used medicinally, though
it has never been an official drug. The powdered seeds operate as a mild
purgative, and a decoction of the plant has been used medicinally as a remedy
in dropsy and is stated to have proved effective in gout and rheumatism,
being taken in wineglassful doses three or four times a day.

The ashes form an alkaline salt, which has also been used as a remedy in
dropsy and other diseases. In the fourteenth century it was used, as well as
Broom, to make an ointment called Unguentum geneste, 'goud for alle could
goutes,' etc. The seed was also used in a plaster for broken limbs. A
decoction of the plant was regarded in the Ukraine as a remedy for
hydrophobia, but its virtues in this respect do not seem to rest on very good
evidence.

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Descurainia sophia

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Capparales » Family: Brassicaceae

Descurainia sophia

ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 0.9 m
(3ft). It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to
September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
and are pollinated by Self. The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The
plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in
semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

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