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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
Evaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova

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Galium mollugo

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium mollugo
This adventive perennial plant
is 12½' long and unbranched, except near the inflorescence. The lower
stem is often decumbent along the ground, while the upper stem and
inflorescence are more or less erect. In the absence of support from adjacent
vegetation, this plant has a tendency to sprawl. The central stem is
glabrous, 4-angled, and often furrowed; it becomes slightly swollen where the
whorls of leaves occur. Each whorl has 6-8 leaves; these whorls of leaves
become rather widely spaced as the central stem elongates. Each leaf is up to
1" long and ¼" across (or slightly larger). It is oblong or
oblanceolate, glabrous, and smooth along its margin; sometimes this margin is
slightly ciliate. There is a single prominent vein along its upper surface.
The foliage of this plant lacks any stiff or clinging hairs. The central stem
terminates in a panicle of cymes up to 1' long. This panicle is longer than
it is broad and contains a multitude of small white flowers. There is often a
pair of small leaves (or leafy bracts) at the base of each cyme along the
central flowering stalk. Each flower is about 1/6" across. It has a
white corolla with 4 lobes (rarely 3) and a pair of ovoid carpels at its base
that are green, hairless, and joined together. The throat of the corolla is
quite narrow, from which there protrudes a pair of styles. Each lobe of the
corolla becomes pointed at its tip. The blooming period occurs from late
spring to mid-summer, and lasts about 1 month. Some plants bloom later than
others. Each carpel contains a seed that is convex on one side and concave on
the other. The root system is rhizomatous and can produce numerous vegetative
offsets.
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Galium aparine

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium aparine
This native annual plant is
about 1-3' long and unbranched, except where the flowers occur. It has a weak
central stem with whorls of 6-8 leaves that are rather widely separated from
each other. Both the central stem and leaves have stiff hairs that point
downward; this enables the plant to cling to adjacent vegetation for support.
The central stem is 4-angled and furrowed. Short secondary stems often
develop from the upper half of the central stem; they terminate in small
cymes of flowers. The leaves are up to 3" long and ¼"
across. They are linear-oblong, smooth along the margins (except for stiff
hairs), and sessile. Each leaf has a single central vein along its length.
Above the upper whorls of leaves, single flowers and/or small cymes of 2-3
flowers are produced. Sometimes panicles of cymes are produced, although the
total number of flowers remains small. At the base of each cyme, there are
1-4 secondary leaves (or leafy bracts); they are smaller than the whorled
leaves of the central stem. Each flower is about 1/8" across. It
consists of 4 white petals with pointed tips, 4 stamens, 2 styles, and a pair
of green carpels that are joined together at the base of the flower. The
sepals are tiny and insignificant. The carpels are covered with stiff hooked
hairs and have a bur-like appearance; together, they are about ¼"
across when fully developed. The blooming period occurs from late spring to
mid-summer and lasts about 1-2 months. After the petals fall off, the carpels
eventually turn brown. Each carpel contains a single greyish brown seed that
is notched on one side. The root system is branching and shallow. This plant
spreads by reseeding itself.
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Galinsoga parviflora

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Galinsoga parviflora
Plants 10-100 cm high, covered with scattered small and more dense in the upper part of appressed simple
hairs, with an admixture of glandular. Stem is straight, usually branched
from the base. Fibrous roots. Leaves opposite, ovate or oblong-ovate, pointed,
on petioles, on the edge with blunt teeth or wavy. Baskets by numerous thin,
not the same length legs, a loose poluzontikah to 3 mm in diameter. Leaflets
ovate involucre, on the edge of the membranous. Ray flowers about 3 mm long.
Achenes 1. 0-1. 5 mm in length, with fine hairs. Boundary - triangular,
internal - the four-pentahedral, with indistinct furrows, dark gray,
sometimes almost black. Pappus in marginal achenes of small setae break off,
in mid - white oblong-lanceolate ciliate films including 8-20, the breaking
away of falling from an annular ridge. Flowering in July-September. Maximum
productivity is up 300 thousand. seeds. Weight of 1000 seeds 0. 21 g. The
vegetation period is 30-45 days. Propagated by seeds, which are dispersed by
wind through CNStats owner gains. In svezhesozrevshih seed germination of
28-49%. The minimum temperature for germination is 6-8 C, optimum 16 - +30
C. Variable temperature promote germination of seeds stale, but in a small
degree of influence on fresh. Fluctuation of dryness and humidity greatly
increases the germination rate as fresh and stale seeds. Germinate from a
depth of no more than 2-3 cm. Germination is greatly influenced by light.
Summer-autumn shoots did not survive the winter and die at a temperature of -
4.2 C.
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Galega officinalis

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Galega officinalis
Perennial, Herbs, Taproot
present, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems less than 1 m tall,
Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or
young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules
conspicuous, Stipules green, triangulate to lanceolate or foliaceous,
Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Stipules cordate, lobed, or sagittate,
Leaves compound, Leaves odd pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets
opposite, Leaflets 5-9, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so,
Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Inflorescence terminal,
Bracts conspicuously present, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx
glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals
pinkish to rose, Petals blue, lavander to purple, or violet, Banner petal
ovoid or obovate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Keel tips
obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Stamens 9-10, Stamens monadelphous, united
below, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Style persistent in fruit, Fruit a
legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight,
Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit torulose or
moniliform, strongly constricted between seeds, Fruit beaked, Fruit 3-10
seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive,
brown, or black.
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Epilobium hirsutum

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Myrtales » Family: Onagraceae

Epilobium hirsutum
It is a tall, perennial plant,
reaching up to 2 metres in . The robust stems are branched and have
numerous hairs. The hairy leaves are 2-12 cm long and 0.5-3.5 cm wide. They
are long and thin and are widest below the middle. They have sharply-toothed
edges and no stalk. The large flowers have four notched petals. These are
purple-pink and are usually 10-16 mm long. The stigma is white and has four
lobes. The sepals are green.
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Dianthus capitatus

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Caryophyllales » Family: Caryophyllaceae

Dianthus capitatus
Perennial herb, stems 30-90 cm
high, green-gray, glabra, in the lignificata, branched, swollen below the
nodes, leaves opposite, linear-lanceolate, 2-5 mm wide, the margins entire;
actinomorfe flowers, solitary or in dicazii large, odoriferous, based gamosepal
calyx tube, there are four folio long as the calyx tube, Arista finished with
a green, short, fruit - capsule denticulata calyx tube that remains closed.
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Descurainia sophia

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Capparales » Family: Brassicaceae

Descurainia sophia

ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 0.9 m
(3ft). It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to
September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
and are pollinated by Self. The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The
plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in
semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

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Crataegus monogyna

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order:Rosales » Family: Rosaceae

Crataegus monogyna
Crataegus monogyna, known as
Common Hawthorn, is a species of hawthorn native to Europe, northwest Africa
and western Asia. Other common names include may, mayblossom, maythorn,
quickthorn, whitethorn, motherdie, and haw. This species is one of several that
have been referred to as Crataegus oxyacantha, a name that has been rejected
by the botanical community as too ambiguous.
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Crataegus curvisepala

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order:Rosales » Family: Rosaceae

Crataegus curvisepala
Shrub or tree up to 5 m; spines
1-2 cm. Leaves rhombic to ovate-oblong, (10-)20-40 mm, as broad as long,
cuneate at base, concolorous, glabrous or with scattered hairs; on lower part
of short shoots shortly 3-lobed; on upper part of short shoots and on long
shoots with 3-7 deeply incised lobes, irregularly serrate at apex and often
almost to the base. Inflorescence 7-12-flowered, lax. Flowers white; pedicels
5-10 mm, elongating in fruit to 10-20 mm; sepals triangular-lanceolate,
acuminate, refiexed in flower and fruit; style l(-2). Fruit dark purple,
ellipsoidal, 8-15 x 4-8 mm; pyrene 1. Fl. 5-6. Deciduous and mixed forests,
bushy slopes, banks of rivers, 50-1800 m.
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Convolvulus arvensis

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Solanales » Family: Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus arvensis
Description. Herbaceous
perennial from persistent, vertical and horizontal rhizomes; rhizomes often
spirally twisted, to 2 m or more in depth; stems 20- 100 cm long, prostrate,
spreading, or twining, often forming tangled mats, angular, puberulent. Leaves
alternate; petioles 0.5-3 cm long; blades 1-5(10) cm long, 1-3(4) cm wide,
sagittate to hastate, puberulent, becoming glabrous, somewhat glaucous,
margins entire, apices rounded. Flowers solitary, sometimes 2-3 per node;
peduncles 0.5-6 cm long, often remotely bracted; bracts 2, 2-4 mm long,
linear; sepals 3-5 mm long, oblong to obovate, margins minutely ciliate,
apices obtuse; corolla 1.5-3 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm wide, funnelform, white to
pink, sometimes purplish near the margins; anthers 5, 2-3 mm long. Fruit a
capsule, 5-8 mm long; seeds 3-4 mm long, ovoid to obovoid, dark brown.
Flowering in California from May to October.
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