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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
«Evaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova
»

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Solanum nigrum

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Solanales

Solanum nigrum
It rarely grows more than a foot
or so in and is much branched, generally making a bushy-looking mass.
It varies much according to the conditions of its growth, both as to the
amount of its dull green foliage and the size of its individual leaves, which
are egg-shaped and stalked, the outlines bluntly notched or waved. The stem
is green and hollow.
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Symphytum officinale

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Boraginales » Family: Boraginaceae

Symphytum officinale
General: robust, taprooted
perennial 30-120 cm tall, often with several clustered stems. Stem and flower
cluster with spreading or bent back, stiff hairs.

Leaves: large, the basal ones stalked, with ovate or lance-ovate blade
mostly 15-30 cm long and 7-12 cm wide. Stem leaves alternate, gradually
reduced and with shorter stalks but still ample, the upper commonly
stalkless. Stem evidently winged by the conspicuously downward-extended
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Melampyrum arvense

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Scrophulariales » Family: Scrophulariaceae

Melampyrum arvense
This annual plant is
hemi-parasitic , this means that its roots attach to those of other plants
and it is able to obtain some nutrition from them. Plants grown in the
absence of a host fail to thrive. A wide range of plants can be used as
hosts, especially grasses. Field cow-wheat flowers from June to September,
the flowers being pollinated by bumblebees . The heavy seeds are poor
dispersers and can stay dormant in the soil for about two years . They have a
small oil body at one end, which is attractive to ants, who may carry the
seeds to their nests, eat the oil body then discard the seed . By doing so
they aid in the dispersal of the plant. The seeds are unusual in that they
germinate in the autumn, and the roots develop well before the shoots (which
develop in the spring); presumably this is so that the seedlings can attach
themselves to the roots of host plants quite quickly .
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Hedera helix

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order:Araliales » Family:Araliaceae

Hedera helix
Ivy is very variable in life
form: it may be a perennial herbaceous vine or climber, a herb, a woody
subshrub, or rarely a tree. Woody stems may grow vertically up tree trunks,
cliffs and walls, or grow horizontally on the woodland floor to form a continuous
carpet – this capacity to extend over soil-less habitats from a base rooted
in soil is unique in the British flora. Only the vertical stems bear
reproductive shoots, which are physiologically adult and bear large, spirally
arranged, radially symmetrical ovate leaves. Juvenile plants or parts of
plants bear alternately arranged, palmately lobed shade-leaves, and it is
typically this growth phase that produces adventitious roots. The natural
switch in morphogenesis from juvenile to adult phase is a consequence of
differential DNA replication, resulting in changes to both the quality
(through heterochromatin under-replication) and quantity (through
polyploidization) of DNA expressed in adult tissue; artificial application of
auxin may also promote flowering in juvenile forms. Mature-leaf forms may be
forced to revert to juvenile forms with gibberellic acid, or through cold
shock or X-ray irradiation. Reversal may also occur naturally in low light
and high temperatures, and cuttings from the adult phase may revert to
juvenile phase.
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Galium verum

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium verum
Lady's Bedstraw or Yellow
Bedstraw) is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Rubiaceae, native to
Europe and Asia. It is a low scrambling plant, with the stems growing to
60-120 cm long, frequently rooting where they touch the ground. The leaves
are 1-3 cm long and 2 mm broad, shiny dark green, hairy underneath, borne in
whorls of 8-12. The flowers are 2-3 mm in diameter, yellow, and produced in
dense clusters.It is related to the plant Cleavers, or Sticky Willy (Gallium
Aparine).
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Galium mollugo

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium mollugo
This adventive perennial plant
is 1–2½' long and unbranched, except near the inflorescence. The lower
stem is often decumbent along the ground, while the upper stem and
inflorescence are more or less erect. In the absence of support from adjacent
vegetation, this plant has a tendency to sprawl. The central stem is
glabrous, 4-angled, and often furrowed; it becomes slightly swollen where the
whorls of leaves occur. Each whorl has 6-8 leaves; these whorls of leaves
become rather widely spaced as the central stem elongates. Each leaf is up to
1" long and ¼" across (or slightly larger). It is oblong or
oblanceolate, glabrous, and smooth along its margin; sometimes this margin is
slightly ciliate. There is a single prominent vein along its upper surface.
The foliage of this plant lacks any stiff or clinging hairs. The central stem
terminates in a panicle of cymes up to 1' long. This panicle is longer than
it is broad and contains a multitude of small white flowers. There is often a
pair of small leaves (or leafy bracts) at the base of each cyme along the
central flowering stalk. Each flower is about 1/6" across. It has a
white corolla with 4 lobes (rarely 3) and a pair of ovoid carpels at its base
that are green, hairless, and joined together. The throat of the corolla is
quite narrow, from which there protrudes a pair of styles. Each lobe of the
corolla becomes pointed at its tip. The blooming period occurs from late
spring to mid-summer, and lasts about 1 month. Some plants bloom later than
others. Each carpel contains a seed that is convex on one side and concave on
the other. The root system is rhizomatous and can produce numerous vegetative
offsets.
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Galium aparine

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium aparine
This native annual plant is
about 1-3' long and unbranched, except where the flowers occur. It has a weak
central stem with whorls of 6-8 leaves that are rather widely separated from
each other. Both the central stem and leaves have stiff hairs that point
downward; this enables the plant to cling to adjacent vegetation for support.
The central stem is 4-angled and furrowed. Short secondary stems often
develop from the upper half of the central stem; they terminate in small
cymes of flowers. The leaves are up to 3" long and ¼"
across. They are linear-oblong, smooth along the margins (except for stiff
hairs), and sessile. Each leaf has a single central vein along its length.
Above the upper whorls of leaves, single flowers and/or small cymes of 2-3
flowers are produced. Sometimes panicles of cymes are produced, although the
total number of flowers remains small. At the base of each cyme, there are
1-4 secondary leaves (or leafy bracts); they are smaller than the whorled
leaves of the central stem. Each flower is about 1/8" across. It
consists of 4 white petals with pointed tips, 4 stamens, 2 styles, and a pair
of green carpels that are joined together at the base of the flower. The
sepals are tiny and insignificant. The carpels are covered with stiff hooked
hairs and have a bur-like appearance; together, they are about ¼"
across when fully developed. The blooming period occurs from late spring to
mid-summer and lasts about 1-2 months. After the petals fall off, the carpels
eventually turn brown. Each carpel contains a single greyish brown seed that
is notched on one side. The root system is branching and shallow. This plant
spreads by reseeding itself.
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Capsella bursa-pastoris

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Capparales » Family: Brassicaceae

Capsella bursa-pastoris
Plant : 10-50 cm tall.
Growth habit: annual, from weak taproots. Stems: simple to branched, with
short, star-shaped hairs.

Leaves: mainly in a basal rosette, lance-shaped, broadest toward tip, 3-6
cm long, stalked, almost entire to pinnately lobed with larger lobe at tip.
Stem leaves smaller, alternate, stalkless and clasping, lance-shaped to
oblong, mostly with shallow, sharp teeth.
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Calendula officinalis

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Calendula officinalis
The calendula is a long time
favorite among gardeners. Also called English marigold, this plant has been
grown since the Middle Ages and was known to Shakespeare. Calendula is an
annual flower that prefers cool growing weather but nevertheless are tender
and killed by frosts. Depending on variety and culture, the plants grow 12-30
in (30.5-76.2 cm) in and about as wide. The leaves are bright green
and typically about 4 in (10.2 cm) long. The lower leaves are oval with a
rounded tip (spatulate) and upper leaves are lance shaped with pointed tips.
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Anagallis arvensis

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Ericales » Family: Myrsinaceae

Anagallis arvensis
Scarlet pimpernel has weak
sprawling stems growing to about 50 cm long, which bear bright green ovate
sessile leaves in opposite pairs. The small orange, red or blue flowers are
produced in the leaf axils from spring till autumn. The petal margins are somewhat
crenate and have small glandular hairs. Blue-flowered plants (A. arvensis
Forma azurea) are common in some areas, such as the Mediterranean region, and
should not be confused with the related Blue pimpernel, Anagallis foemina,
sometimes treated as a subspecies, Anagallis arvensis ssp. foemina. In 2007,
a molecular phylogenetic study showed that Anagallis foemina is more closely
related to Anagallis monelli than to Anagallis arvensis, and should be
treated as a separate species.
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