Med Plant Data Base

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Moldo-german project 10.820.09.09GA
ЂEvaluation of the pharmaceutic potential
of medicinal plants from natural habitats from Republic of Moldova
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Hypericum perforatum

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Hypericales » Family: Hypericaceae

Hypericum perforatumHerbaceous perennial plant 30-70
(100) cm tall. Stem is erect, branchy in the upper part, with two
longitudinal ribs. Leaves are opposite, elliptical or oblong-ovate,
smooth-edged, sessile, with numerous, translucent, light and black glandules.
Flowers are numerous, golden yellow, assembled in a latipaniculate or
corymbose inflorescence. Petals are covered with glandules along the edges,
dentate on the top. Fruit is an oblong-ovoid boll. Seed are small, brown,
closely meshed. Blossoms from June until August. Entomophilous. 2n=32.

Ecology.

Xeromesophyte. Photophilous. Grows on dry and sunny sites. Grows throughout
the forest and forest-steppe zones. Rarely forms extensive thickets; more
often grows in narrow bands along clearings or in small clumps on dry,
motley-grass, steppe meadows, in glades and clearings, in thin pinewoods, in
dry coniferous/small-leaved mixed forests, in oak groves, in steppe birch
patches, in meadow steppes, in fallow lands, along field edges and along
roadsides. In mountainous areas, the species occurs on foothills and in the
lower and middle mountain zones on stony slopes, though it rarely ascends
into sub-alpine meadows (up to 2300 m above sea level).
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Helichrysum arenarium

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Asterales » Family: Asteraceae

Helichrysum arenarium
Perennial, woody root, stem
10-30 cm, unbranched, greyish tomentoasă the foil, leaves linear to
oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to base; antodii globular 4-5 mm in
diameter, yellow-orange; leaflets involucrale, nested , loose, yellow like
lemon, yellow flowers, the marginal missing, flowering from July to
September, fruit 1mm long sided achene.
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Hedera helix

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order:Araliales » Family:Araliaceae

Hedera helix
Ivy is very variable in life
form: it may be a perennial herbaceous vine or climber, a herb, a woody
subshrub, or rarely a tree. Woody stems may grow vertically up tree trunks,
cliffs and walls, or grow horizontally on the woodland floor to form a continuous
carpet Ц this capacity to extend over soil-less habitats from a base rooted
in soil is unique in the British flora. Only the vertical stems bear
reproductive shoots, which are physiologically adult and bear large, spirally
arranged, radially symmetrical ovate leaves. Juvenile plants or parts of
plants bear alternately arranged, palmately lobed shade-leaves, and it is
typically this growth phase that produces adventitious roots. The natural
switch in morphogenesis from juvenile to adult phase is a consequence of
differential DNA replication, resulting in changes to both the quality
(through heterochromatin under-replication) and quantity (through
polyploidization) of DNA expressed in adult tissue; artificial application of
auxin may also promote flowering in juvenile forms. Mature-leaf forms may be
forced to revert to juvenile forms with gibberellic acid, or through cold
shock or X-ray irradiation. Reversal may also occur naturally in low light
and high temperatures, and cuttings from the adult phase may revert to
juvenile phase.
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Gleditsia triacanthos

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Gleditsia triacanthosHoney locusts can reach a
of 20Ц30 m (66Ц100 ft), with fast growth, and are relatively short-lived;
about 120 years, some living up to 150. They are also prone to losing large
branches in windstorms. The leaves are pinnately compound on older trees but
bipinnately compound on vigorous young trees. The leaflets are 1.5Ц2.5 cm
(smaller on bipinnate leaves) and bright green. They turn yellow in the fall
(autumn). Leafs out relatively late in spring, but generally slightly earlier
than the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The strongly scented
cream-colored flowers appear in late spring, in clusters emerging from the
base of the leaf axils.

The fruit of the Honey locust is a flat legume (pod) that matures between
September and October. The pods are generally between 15Ц20 cm. The pulp on
the insides of the pods is edible, unlike the Black locust, which is toxic.
The seeds are dispersed by grazing herbivores such as cattle and horses,
which eat the pod pulp and excrete the seeds in droppings; the animal's
digestive system assists in breaking down the hard seed coat, making
germination easier.

Honey locusts commonly have thorns 3Ц10 cm long growing out of the
branches; these may be single, or branched into several points, and commonly
form dense clusters. The thorns are fairly soft and green when young, harden
and turn red as they age, then fade to ash grey and turn brittle when mature.
These thorns are thought to have evolved to protect the trees from browsing
Pleistocene megafauna which may also have been involved in seed dispersal.
Thornless forms (G. t. inermis) are occasionally found growing wild.
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Glechoma hederacea

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Lamiales » Family: Lamiaceae

Glechoma hederacea
Perennial. Plant glabrous or
very slightly pubescent, the stems 20-50 cm long, glabrous or the ribs with
very short, appressed, hairs bent down, prostrate or ascending with numerous
stems rooting, lower stem leaves with petioles 5-6 cm long, almost equal to
the plate, the leaves on the edge crenate, reniform or orbicular reniform,
reniform-cordate. The flowers are collected on 3-4 in the axils of middle and
upper leaves, bracts shorter than the peduncles, filamentous 1-1,5 mm long,
corolla bluish-purple, 10-18 mm long, usually up to 2-2,5 times the cup, a
cup of narrow , tubular, with triangular teeth, suddenly finely acuminate,
3-4 times shorter than tube; nutlets brown, 2 mm long. Blooming V-VII.
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Geranium pretense

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Geraniales » Family: Geraniaceae

Geranium pretense
Rhizome short, thick, oblique,
up to 10 cm, topped by a dark-brown bracts basal leaves. Stems few or
solitary, 30-80 cm tall, erect, branched in the upper part, furrowed, covered
with spaced or deflexed hairs. Bottom leaves are opposite, numerous, on long
petioles 10-20 (30) cm, otstoyasche zhestkovolosistye; record length 6-12 cm,
6-16 cm wide, reniform in outline, rounded, top decumbent and shortly hairy,
bottom, mainly on veins, with short hair, almost to the base semirazdelnaya
to rhombic-ovate lobes, in turn, almost peristonadrezannye into lanceolate
segments. Floral - lanceolate, acuminate, appressed pilose, 10-15 mm long..
Pedicels are glandular hairy, before flowering, as in fruit, drooping during
flowering up standing. The flowers are large, wide, numerous. Sepals 10-13 mm
long, oblong-ovate to three veins, covered with glandular hairs, with special
reference filiform 3-4 mm long, the petals of the five, purplish-blue,
purplish-red, blue or bluish-purple, a 16 - 23 mm, a of 10-17 mm wide,
obovate, rounded at the top, entire, pilose at the base. Filaments of stamens
displaced at the base of a broad and hairy below. Fruit - coracoid education,
length of about 3 cm, which after maturation is divided into monosperma
fruitlets. Seeds are tiny spotty. Blooming in June - July. Fruiting in August
- September.
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Genista tinctoria

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Fabales » Family: Fabaceae

Genista tinctoria

The bright green smooth stems, 1
to 2 feet high, are much branched; the branches erect, rather stiff, smooth
or only lightly hairy and free from spines. The leaves are spear-shaped,
placed alternately on the stem, smooth, with uncut margins, 1/2 to 1 inch in
length, very smoothly stalked; the margins fringed with hairs. The shoots
terminate in spikes of brightyellow, pea-like flowers, opening in July. They
are 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, on foot-stalks shorter than the calyx. Like those
of the Broom, they 'explode' when visited by an insect. The 'claws' of the
four lower petals are straight at first, but in a high state of tension, so
that the moment they are touched, they curl downwards with a sudden action
and the flower bursts open. The flowers are followed by smooth pods, 1 to 1/4
inch long, much compressed laterally, brown when ripe, containing five to ten
seeds. A dwarf kind grows in tufts in meadows in the greater part of England
and is said to enrich poor soil.

Cows will sometimes eat the plant, and it communicates an unpleasant
bitterness to their milk and even to the cheese and butter made from it. All
parts of the plant, but especially the flowering tops, yield a good yellow
dye, and from the earliest times have been used by dyers for producing this
colour, especially for wool; combined with woad, an excellent green is
yielded, the colour being fixed with alum, cream of tartar and sulphate of
lime. In some parts of England, the plant used to be collected in large
quantities by the poor and sold to the dyers.

Tournefort (1708) describes the process of dyeing linen, woollen, cloth or
leather by the use of this plant, which he saw in the island of Samos. It is
still applied to the same purpose in some of the Grecian islands. The Romans
employed it for dyeing, and it is described by several of their writers. The
plant is called in French Genêt des Teinturiers and in German
Färberginster. Its English name in the fourteenth century was
Wede-wixin, or Woud-wix, which later became Woad Waxen. We find it also
called Green Weed and Dyer's Weed. It has diuretic, cathartic and emetic
properties and both flower tops and seeds have been used medicinally, though
it has never been an official drug. The powdered seeds operate as a mild
purgative, and a decoction of the plant has been used medicinally as a remedy
in dropsy and is stated to have proved effective in gout and rheumatism,
being taken in wineglassful doses three or four times a day.

The ashes form an alkaline salt, which has also been used as a remedy in
dropsy and other diseases. In the fourteenth century it was used, as well as
Broom, to make an ointment called Unguentum geneste, 'goud for alle could
goutes,' etc. The seed was also used in a plaster for broken limbs. A
decoction of the plant was regarded in the Ukraine as a remedy for
hydrophobia, but its virtues in this respect do not seem to rest on very good
evidence.

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Galium verum

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium verum
Lady's Bedstraw or Yellow
Bedstraw) is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Rubiaceae, native to
Europe and Asia. It is a low scrambling plant, with the stems growing to
60-120 cm long, frequently rooting where they touch the ground. The leaves
are 1-3 cm long and 2 mm broad, shiny dark green, hairy underneath, borne in
whorls of 8-12. The flowers are 2-3 mm in diameter, yellow, and produced in
dense clusters.It is related to the plant Cleavers, or Sticky Willy (Gallium
Aparine).
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Galium mollugo

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium mollugo
This adventive perennial plant
is 1Ц2½' long and unbranched, except near the inflorescence. The lower
stem is often decumbent along the ground, while the upper stem and
inflorescence are more or less erect. In the absence of support from adjacent
vegetation, this plant has a tendency to sprawl. The central stem is
glabrous, 4-angled, and often furrowed; it becomes slightly swollen where the
whorls of leaves occur. Each whorl has 6-8 leaves; these whorls of leaves
become rather widely spaced as the central stem elongates. Each leaf is up to
1" long and ¼" across (or slightly larger). It is oblong or
oblanceolate, glabrous, and smooth along its margin; sometimes this margin is
slightly ciliate. There is a single prominent vein along its upper surface.
The foliage of this plant lacks any stiff or clinging hairs. The central stem
terminates in a panicle of cymes up to 1' long. This panicle is longer than
it is broad and contains a multitude of small white flowers. There is often a
pair of small leaves (or leafy bracts) at the base of each cyme along the
central flowering stalk. Each flower is about 1/6" across. It has a
white corolla with 4 lobes (rarely 3) and a pair of ovoid carpels at its base
that are green, hairless, and joined together. The throat of the corolla is
quite narrow, from which there protrudes a pair of styles. Each lobe of the
corolla becomes pointed at its tip. The blooming period occurs from late
spring to mid-summer, and lasts about 1 month. Some plants bloom later than
others. Each carpel contains a seed that is convex on one side and concave on
the other. The root system is rhizomatous and can produce numerous vegetative
offsets.
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Galium aparine

KINGDOM: Plantae » Class: Magnoliopsida » Order: Rubiales » Family: Rubiaceae

Galium aparine
This native annual plant is
about 1-3' long and unbranched, except where the flowers occur. It has a weak
central stem with whorls of 6-8 leaves that are rather widely separated from
each other. Both the central stem and leaves have stiff hairs that point
downward; this enables the plant to cling to adjacent vegetation for support.
The central stem is 4-angled and furrowed. Short secondary stems often
develop from the upper half of the central stem; they terminate in small
cymes of flowers. The leaves are up to 3" long and ¼"
across. They are linear-oblong, smooth along the margins (except for stiff
hairs), and sessile. Each leaf has a single central vein along its length.
Above the upper whorls of leaves, single flowers and/or small cymes of 2-3
flowers are produced. Sometimes panicles of cymes are produced, although the
total number of flowers remains small. At the base of each cyme, there are
1-4 secondary leaves (or leafy bracts); they are smaller than the whorled
leaves of the central stem. Each flower is about 1/8" across. It
consists of 4 white petals with pointed tips, 4 stamens, 2 styles, and a pair
of green carpels that are joined together at the base of the flower. The
sepals are tiny and insignificant. The carpels are covered with stiff hooked
hairs and have a bur-like appearance; together, they are about ¼"
across when fully developed. The blooming period occurs from late spring to
mid-summer and lasts about 1-2 months. After the petals fall off, the carpels
eventually turn brown. Each carpel contains a single greyish brown seed that
is notched on one side. The root system is branching and shallow. This plant
spreads by reseeding itself.
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